My Perfect Mortgage
Comprehensive Guide to DSCR Loans in 2024: Unlocking Investment Opportunities
14 minute read
May 20, 2024

Have you found the perfect investment property with steady rental income potential but lack W-2s or tax returns? Forget about traditional income requirements! DSCR loans are here for you.

These aren’t your ordinary loans. DSCR loans are specifically designed for investors like you, focusing on the property's potential rather than your personal income.

In this guide, we’ll explore how DSCR loans work, who they’re best for, and how to ace the application process to maximize your investment opportunities.

By the end, you’ll understand the ins and outs of DSCR loans and be better equipped to decide if they’re the right fit for your real estate investment goals.

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What is a DSCR loan?

A DSCR (Debt Service Coverage Ratio) loan is a financing option designed specifically for real estate investors. Unlike traditional loans from banks, which require extensive proof of income, DSCR is only concerned with one thing: how much money your rental property can make.

Think of it as a secret advantage that other real estate investors don’t know yet.

Can the income from this property cover the mortgage payments and then some? The lender hopes to answer that question when calculating the property’s DSCR.

DSCR loans are a perfect match for properties with strong rental prospects. They allow investors to use the property’s financial strength instead of proving their financial status.

How DSCR loans stack up against traditional loans

While traditional bank loans have you jumping through hoops to provide financial health, DSCR loans take a different route. They zoom in on the property’s ability to pay for itself. This is a breath of fresh air for investors with unique income streams.

Check your DSCR loan eligibility.

DSCR is a straightforward metric that compares a property's income to its debt obligations. It's about whether the rental income comfortably covers the monthly mortgage payments.

Traditional loans might require you to submit tax returns or proof of income, but a DSCR loan focuses solely on this ratio.

If the property pays for itself and more, why give more information on your finances?

Most DSCR lenders will happily approve a loan for such a property, making this a type of non-QM loan—perfect for investors looking for flexibility and efficiency.

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Debt Service Coverage Ratio explained

The DSCR metric helps lenders decide whether a property is a viable investment for a loan based on its ability to generate income.

But how is it calculated, and what does it mean for your loan approval chances?

DSCR formula

The DSCR is calculated by dividing the annual net operative income by the total annual debt service.

DSCR =  Income / Payment

DSCR terms to know

  • Annual Net Operating Income (NOI): The property generates yearly income after subtracting all operating expenses. For residential properties, it's usually the rental income. For commercial properties, it’s the rental income minus expenses like management and maintenance.
  • Total Annual Debt Service: This is the total of all payments required for the year to service the debt, including principal and interest.

Calculating DSCR

Imagine a property earns $100,000 annually in rent and other fees.

To run the property, you pay $20,000 a year for maintenance and other expenses. This leaves $80,000 in net operating income (NOI).

Net operating income is simply the property's income minus its operating expenses.

Now, let's say your total annual debt service for the property is $60,000. This includes all your mortgage payments, covering the interest and principal amount.

The DSCR ratio is calculated by dividing the net operating income (NOI) by the total annual debt service.

We have $80,000 in NOI and $60,000 in debt service in this example. Dividing $80,000 by $60,000 gives us a DSCR ratio of 1.33.

What does a DSCR of 1.33 mean?

Generally, lenders look for a DSCR that's at least 1.25. A DSCR of 1.33 indicates the property's income is sufficient to cover its debt service by more than 1.25 times.

In other words, the property generates enough income to comfortably cover its debt obligations, leaving a buffer.

This is a good sign for lenders and shows the property's financial strength.

Impact on loan approval: What does your DSCR mean when getting a loan?

  • Above 1.0: Generally, the higher the DSCR, the better your chances of loan approval. A ratio above 1.0 means the property generates enough income to cover its debt payments.
  • Below 1.0: A DSCR below 1.0 suggests the property might not generate enough income to cover its debts, making it a riskier bet for lenders.
DSCR Loan guidelines and fast facts. All about Debt Service Coverage Ratio loans.

What is the minimum DSCR to qualify?

Lenders prefer a DSCR of at least 1.25, but the exact requirements can vary. Some may accept lower ratios, especially if other aspects of your financial profile are strong.

For example, a lender might accept a lower DSCR if you have an excellent credit score or substantial cash reserves.

In cases where a property's DSCR falls short, you need more options.

Here are a few strategies that can help boost your loan eligibility:

  • Increase your down payment: Putting more money down can reduce the loan amount, thereby improving the DSCR.
  • Secure better loan terms: Finding a loan with a lower interest rate can decrease your monthly debt service and improve your property's DSCR.
  • Enhance property income: If the current rental income is below market rates, consider whether you can raise rents without significant investment or turnover. Additionally, minor improvements to the property might allow for increased rental rates.

DSCR income and payment calculations by property type

When applying for a DSCR loan, how income and debt are calculated can vary significantly between residential and commercial properties.

The following is a closer look at each.

Residential properties income calculation

The calculation typically centers around the proposed or actual rental income for residential properties. This is straightforward if a tenant is already in place paying rent.

However, if the property is newly acquired or vacant, you might need an appraiser to estimate the potential rental income.

This is usually done through the Fannie Mae Form 1025 or Freddie Mac Form 72, which are designed to provide a standardized approach to appraising rental properties.

Residential property payment calculation

To calculate payments on a residential property, you need to consider all the costs associated with the mortgage and property upkeep.

This includes:

  • Monthly mortgage principal and interest payments.
  • Property taxes.
  • Homeowners insurance.
  • Homeowners Association (HOA) fees, if applicable.
  • Any other recurring property-related dues.

All these costs are added together to determine the total annual debt service, which is then used in the DSCR calculation.

Commercial properties income calculation

Commercial properties take a slightly different approach. They focus on Net Operating Income (NOI), which represents the property's gross yearly income minus all operational expenses.

Operational expenses include management fees, maintenance, repairs, and other necessary outlays required to maintain the property's ability to generate income.

This gives a clearer picture of what the property can earn in a typical year.

Commercial properties payment calculation

For commercial properties, the payment calculation generally includes only the principal and interest components of the debt.

Other expenses, such as taxes and insurance, are typically considered part of the operational expenses and are thus already subtracted when calculating the NOI.

This streamlines the DSCR calculation since it focuses primarily on the major debt obligations rather than the adjusted income.

Note: Most of this post will focus on residential DSCR loans.

In the following table, you can see how residential DSCR changes as the payment falls.

Rental IncomePITI PaymentDSCR
$        2,500$        2,1001.19
$        2,500$        2,0001.25
$        2,500$        1,9001.32
$        2,500$        1,8001.39
$        2,500$        1,7001.47
$        2,500$        1,6001.56
$        2,500$        1,5001.67

Likewise, DSCR improves as income rises.

Rental IncomePITI PaymentDSCR
$        2,000$        1,7001.18
$        2,100$        1,7001.24
$        2,200$        1,7001.29
$        2,300$        1,7001.35
$        2,400$        1,7001.41
$        2,500$        1,7001.47
$        2,600$        1,7001.53
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Key features of DSCR loans

Let’s review what sets DSCR loans apart from traditional loans for real estate investors.

  • Income-based qualification: Unlike traditional loans, DSCR loans do not require personal income verification. Eligibility is based on the property's income-generating potential.
  • No-tax-return requirement: Ideal for investors who cannot provide extensive personal financial records.

Common terms and conditions:

  • Interest rates: Typically higher than conventional loans due to increased risk from not verifying personal income.
  • Loan-to-Value (LTV) ratios: Depending on the lender's policy, a minimum 20-25% down payment is often required.
  • Flexible use: For various property types, including single-family, multi-unit, and commercial properties.

Ideal candidates for DSCR loans

  • Seasoned investors: Veterans in the property market who understand how to capitalize on the income-generating capabilities of commercial and residential properties.
  • Self-employed individuals: Freelancers, consultants, and small business owners who lack conventional income verification but own profitable real estate investments.
  • Portfolio builders: Strategic investors focused on acquiring multiple properties, such as multi-family units, single-family rentals, or mixed-use buildings, without traditional lending limitations.

Typical Iinvestor scenarios

  • High-rental yield properties: Investors targeting luxury condos, urban apartments, or vacation rentals in prime locations where rental income far exceeds operational and mortgage costs.
  • Rehabilitation projects: Real estate developers invest in undervalued properties needing renovations (fix-and-flips), aiming to transform them into high-return rental units or resale opportunities.
Check your DSCR loan eligibility.

What is a non-QM loan?

Non-qualified mortgage (non-QM) loans do not meet strict income verification standards set by government guidelines, offering you greater flexibility in lending criteria (such as providing the property’s potential income instead of tax returns).

DSCR loans are a type of non-QM loan.

Generally speaking, non-QM loans are an alternative to traditional loans for non-traditional borrowers.

How to qualify for a DSCR loan

Qualifying for a DSCR loan is often easier than for a traditional loan. Guidelines vary by lender, but here are common DSCR loan requirements.

General DSCR loan qualifications

  • Loan-to-Value (LTV): Most lenders require a down payment of 20-25%, equating to an LTV of 75-80%.
  • Credit score: A minimum score of 640 is typically necessary, although conditions may be more flexible if past foreclosures or bankruptcies occurred over three years ago.
  • Loan purpose: Applicable for purchasing, refinancing, or cash-out refinancing of investment properties.
  • Property type: Eligible properties range from non-warrantable condos and multi-unit commercial properties to traditional single-family homes, duplexes, and 3-4-unit properties.
  • Property use: The property must be intended for investment or rental purposes, including long-term and short-term rentals like Airbnb or Vrbo.
  • Loan type: Options include fixed-rate, adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs), and interest-only loans.
  • Income verification: Typically, there is no requirement to verify the borrower’s income or calculate a debt-to-income ratio.
  • Maximum loan amount: Loan amounts can vary widely, often reaching millions.
  • Property ownership: There is generally no cap on the number of properties an investor can own.

DSCR loan application process insights

  • Assessment of property’s income potential: Begin by ensuring the property’s rental income potential meets or exceeds the lender’s required DSCR.
  • Down payment and credit check: Prepare for a credit check and have funds ready for a 20-25% down payment.
  • Gather property documentation: Collect necessary documents such as property listings, potential rental income estimates, and current leases.
  • Submit loan application: Apply through a lender that offers DSCR loans. Provide details about the investment property and your real estate investment history.
  • Property appraisal and LTV confirmation: The lender will conduct an appraisal to confirm the property’s value and the corresponding LTV ratio.
  • Loan underwriting: The lender reviews all documentation to ensure compliance with their terms and the financial stability of the investment.
  • Closing: If approved, you’ll proceed to closing, where the property title can be vested in an individual’s name or an LLC. You might negotiate seller-paid closing costs to reduce upfront expenses.

DSCR mortgage rates

DSCR mortgage loan rates are generally 1-2% higher than those for conventional, FHA, or VA loans due to the increased risk associated with non-owner-occupied properties and lack of income verification.

DSCR refinance

DSCR loans allow refinancing to leverage equity or switch from short-term financing.

They are suitable for properties that maintain positive cash flow post-refinance and are among the few no-income-doc options available.

DSCR alternatives

Asset-based loans: Suitable for those with significant liquid assets, these loans use your assets as proof you can cover mortgage payments, bypassing traditional income verification.

Bank Statement Loans: These loans are ideal for earners with non-verifiable incomes. They require 12-24 months of bank statements instead of traditional income documents.

Interest-only loans: Require only monthly interest payments, lowering initial outlays and improving cash flow. Principal repayment is optional.

Pros and cons of DSCR loans


  • There is no need for personal income or employment verification.
  • Flexible investor-friendly terms.
  • Often, it allows for higher loan amounts compared to traditional loans.
  • Suitable for a diverse range of properties, including long-term and short-term rentals, and commercial real estate.


  • Requires a substantial down payment of 20-25%.
  • It is not applicable for financing primary residences.
  • Properties must demonstrate sufficient cash flow to qualify.
  • Higher interest rates due to increased lender risk.
  • Limited availability with some lenders due to niche market focus.

Requirements for long-term rental DSCR loans

  • Stable rental history demonstrating consistent income.
  • The minimum DSCR ratio is typically set at 1.25.
  • Properties must be in good condition and located in markets with reliable rental demand.

Requirements for short-term rental DSCR loans

  • Proven profitability as a short-term or vacation rental.
  • Higher DSCR requirement due to the potentially fluctuating income.
  • Often requires local market data supporting strong short-term rental demand.
Get started with your DSCR loan application here.

What makes a property eligible for a DSCR loan?

Qualifying properties must generate sufficient rental income to cover loan payments and operational costs.

Property types include single-family homes, multi-unit residential, commercial, and mixed-use buildings.

Assessment criteria:

  • Lenders evaluate the property’s income potential, condition, and market position.
  • Appraisals and income statements are crucial to confirming income reliability and property value.

How to get a DSCR loan: 9 steps explained

Interested in securing a DSCR loan for that investment property you’ve been eyeing? Follow these steps:

1. Research lenders

Begin by identifying lenders that offer DSCR loans. Focus on those that cater to your specific property type and investment strategy.

2. Pre-qualification

Contact the lenders to discuss your investment and pre-qualify for a loan. This step will give you an idea of the potential loan terms and amounts.

3. Gather documentation

Prepare necessary documentation that demonstrates the property’s income potential. This may include current lease agreements, profit and loss statements, and a rental market analysis.

4. Submit loan application

Complete and submit the formal loan application along with the required documentation. Be thorough to avoid delays.

5. Property appraisal

The lender will order an appraisal to verify the property's value and income potential. This ensures the loan amount is appropriate for the property’s worth.

6. Underwriting process

During this phase, the lender reviews all provided information to ensure compliance with their lending criteria. Be responsive to any additional information requests during this time.

7. Loan approval

The loan will be approved once the underwriting process is complete and all criteria are met. You will receive the loan terms for final review and acceptance.

8. Closing the loan

Arrange a closing date with the lender. Final documents are signed during closing, and the loan funds are disbursed.

9. Post-closing

After closing, the loan is active, and repayment begins according to the agreed terms. Manage the property effectively to ensure it meets or exceeds the required DSCR.

When not to opt for a DSCR loan

Considering a DSCR loan? While they offer flexibility, they’re not always the best fit for every situation.

Limitations of DSCR loans

  • Unstable rental income: If the property's income is irregular or unpredictable, such as in areas with seasonal rentals, qualifying for a DSCR loan can be difficult.
  • Low DSCR ratio: Properties that barely cover their debt service or have high operational costs may need to meet the required DSCR thresholds, typically around 1.25 or higher.
  • New investors: Those new to real estate investing might find the higher interest rates and down payment requirements of DSCR loans more manageable than traditional financing options.
  • Primary residences: DSCR loans are intended for investment properties only. They won't apply if you're looking to buy a home.

Alternative financing solutions

  • Traditional mortgages: For those with stable, documentable incomes, traditional mortgages offer lower interest rates and more predictable terms.
  • FHA loans: Ideal for first-time homebuyers or primary residence purchases, offering lower down payment requirements and more flexibility in credit scores.
  • Hard money loans are useful for investors looking to rehab properties quickly. They are based more on the property’s potential value post-rehab than the borrower's creditworthiness.
  • HELOCs (Home Equity Line of Credit): For those who already own property and need funds to invest in more, HELOCs use your current home as collateral and provide flexible access to capital.

5 tips for real estate investors

  • Focus on cash flow: Ensure properties generate more income than expenses to avoid draining personal funds. Prioritize high-income potential and low costs.
  • Vet tenants: Screen tenants thoroughly to avoid costly problems. Look for good credit, stable income, and a positive rental history.
  • Hire professionals: Use legal and accounting experts to handle complex tasks, saving you time and money in the long run.
  • Consider property management: Delegate management tasks to professionals if self-managing becomes overwhelming or inefficient.
  • Stay local: Invest in familiar neighborhoods to leverage market knowledge and use a consistent team of service providers.

FAQs about DSCR loans

Where are DSCR loans most effective?

DSCR loans are most effective in high-cash-flow areas where rental income easily meets or exceeds the loan payment requirements. In high-value markets, it might be harder to qualify due to lower rent-to-value ratios. However, investors can find viable DSCR loan opportunities in any market with cash-flowing properties.

Are DSCR loans good?
Can DSCR loans be used for a primary residence?
Are DSCR loans no-income-verification loans?
Can anyone get a DSCR loan?
Do you need a down payment for a DSCR loan?
Is a DSCR loan a commercial loan?
Can you use a DSCR loan to buy a house?
Can DSCR loans be refinanced, and if so, what are the requirements?
Are there any prepayment penalties associated with DSCR loans?
What documents are required to apply for a DSCR loan?
Submit your DSCR loan scenario today.

Learn more about DSCR loans in your state

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